Impact of mass-scale deployment of electric vehicles and benefits of smart charging across all European countries

Andrea Mangipinto, Francesco Lombardi*, Francesco Davide Sanvito, Matija Pavičević, Sylvain Quoilin, Emanuela Colombo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)
45 Downloads (Pure)


The mass-scale integration of electric vehicles into the power system is a key pillar of the European energy transition agenda. Yet, the extent to which such integration would represent a burden for the power system of each member country is still an unanswered question. This is mainly due to a lack of accurate and context-specific representations of aggregate mobility and charging patterns for large electric vehicle fleets. Here, we develop and validate against empirical data an open-source model that simulates such patterns at high (1-min) temporal resolution, based on easy-to-gather, openly accessible data. We hence apply the model – which we name RAMP-mobility – to 28 European countries, showing for the first time the existence of marked differences in mobility and charging patterns across those, due to a combination of weather and socio-economic factors. We hence quantify the impact that fully-electric car fleets would have on the demand to be met by each country's power system: an uncontrolled deployment of electric vehicles would increase peak demand in the range 35–51%, whilst a plausible share of adoption of smart charging strategies could limit the increase to 30–41%. On the contrary, plausible technology (battery density) and infrastructure (charging power) developments would not provide substantial benefits. Efforts for electric vehicles integration should hence primarily focus on mechanisms to support smart vehicle-to-grid interaction. The approach is applicable generally beyond Europe and can provide policy makers with quantitatively reliable insights about electric vehicles impact on the power system.
Original languageEnglish
Article number118676
JournalApplied Energy
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Electric vehicles
  • Sector coupling
  • Smart charging
  • stochastic demand simulation
  • Time series


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