Impact of WTG converter impedance model on harmonic amplification factor of the Dutch 110kV transmission network using a 383MW wind farm case study

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In this decade, a significant amount of additional wind and solar power will be integrated in the Dutch high voltage grid. The 383 MW nearshore Wind Park Fryslân is foressen to be connected to the Dutch 110kV grid in 2020 through two 55km cable circuits. To quantify the risks of exceeding emission levels for both the TSO and the wind farm developer, harmonic voltage distortion studies must already be performed at an early phase of the project. Relevant data of wind farm components may not yet be available then and must therefore be estimated including data of the wind turbine generator (WTG). The objective of this paper is to assess the impact of a WTG converter impedance model on the harmonic impedance of the windfarm and subsequent harmonic voltage amplification. For this purpose, an analytical converter harmonic model with tunable parameters has been developed. A sensitivity study was performed in a case study of Wind Park Fryslân to analyse the impact of these parameters on the harmonic amplification at the Point of Connection with the 110 kV grid. The length and amount of array cables were also included in the study. The paper follows a step-wise approach where subsequently wind farm impedance, grid impedance and amplification factor have been calculated. It has been found that the WTG converter impedance model has a significant impact on the harmonic amplification of low harmonic orders (h=2 to h=10). Notably, not taking the converter impedance into account (infinite impedance) will result in both over- as well as underestimation of the harmonic amplification over the mentioned frequency range. It is shown that, when no WTG manufacturer has been selected yet, the analytical converter model provides a valid alternative for performing early-stage harmonic studies.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCIGRE
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 2020
EventCigre 2020 E-session - Online event
Duration: 3 Sept 20203 Sept 2020


ConferenceCigre 2020 E-session
CityOnline event

Bibliographical note

This was the CIGRE Session 48 to be held in Paris but was held online due to COVID-19


  • Harmonic impedance
  • Harmonic amplification
  • wind turbine generator
  • converter model


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