Improvement of the Stolwijk model with regard to clothing, thermal sensation and skin temperature

P. Roelofsen*, P. Vink

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND: The original Stolwijk model is not equipped with clothing, thermal sensation, comfort indices, individual characteristics and performance loss models. OBJECTIVE: This study attempts to modify the model to include clothing, thermal sensation as well as the calculation of the percentage of dissatisfied as a result of general discomfort. The model is useful for the evaluation of thermal comfort in the built environment by professionals. METHODS: Methods described in literature with regard of clothing, the research of Fiala as well as some in the literature recommended and validated adjustments, to improve the simulation of the skin temperature per body segment, are implemented in the here assembled Stolwijk computer model. Finally, for verification of the above adjustments, the model was compared with experiments conducted in the field of thermal sensation at various levels of temperature change. RESULTS: By improving the simulation of the skin temperature per body segment and by adding clothing and thermal sensation, suitable for the assessment of steady state and transient thermal conditions, and fixed with this the percentage of dissatisfied, the scope of the Stolwijk model has become larger than it was before. CONCLUSION: On the basis of the calculations and the experimental results, it was concluded that the adjusted Stolwijk model was suitable for the simulation of the thermal sensation under steady state and transient thermal conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1009-1024
Number of pages16
JournalWork: a journal of prevention, assessment & rehabilitation
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2016


  • Mathematical human modelling
  • transient thermal sensation


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