The lack of situational awareness is a major cause of ship collisions. Thus, enhancing the situational awareness of the stand-on ship is a key for navigational safety, where the intention estimation of the give-way ship is crucial. According to COLREGs, the stand-on ship is not allowed to take evasive actions until the give-way ship does not take proper actions timely. The stage that needs the stand-on ship to take actions plays as the second protective layer for the ship, which is named as ‘Stand-on Ship as Second Line of Defense’ (SLoD). A method to estimate the intention of the give-way ship and to trigger SLoD is proposed in this article. Four modules of the proposed method include: “data pre-processing” collects all traffic information and determines the ships' obligations; “action identification” pinpoints the turning points; “action uncertainty” generates a bounded reachable velocity considering the give-way ship's maneuverability; “conflict assessment” judges potential collision by using non-linear velocity obstacle algorithm. Several typical encounter scenarios are simulated to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. The results show that intention estimation of the give-way ship improves the situational awareness of the stand-on ship, which can support the stand-on ship to make collision avoidance decisions.
- Action uncertainty
- Non-linear velocity obstacles (NL-VO) algorithm
- Second line of defense (SLoD)
- Ship intention
- Situational awareness