Si-based anode materials in Li-ion batteries (LIBs) suffer from severe volume expansion/contraction during repetitive discharge/charge, which results in the pulverization of active materials, continuous growth of solid electrolyte interface (SE!) layers, loss of electrical conduction, and, eventually, battery failure. Herein, we present unprecedented low-content phosphorene (single-layer black phosphorus) encapsulation of silicon particles as an effective method for improving the electrochemical performance of Si-based LIB anodes. The incorporation of low phosphorene amounts (1%, mass fraction) into Si anodes effectively suppresses the detrimental effects of volume expansion and SE! growth, preserving the structural integrity of the electrode during cycling and achieving enhanced Coulombic efficiency, capacity retention, and cycling stability for Li-ion storage. Thus, the developed method can also be applied to other battery materials with high energy density exhibiting substantial volume changes.
- Anode materials
- Li ion battery