Indoor Multi-Dimensional Location GML and Its Application for Ubiquitous Indoor Location Services

Qing Zhu, Yun Li, Qing Xiong, Sisi Zlatanova, Yulin Ding, Yeting Zhang, Yan Zhou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)
20 Downloads (Pure)


The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Geography Markup Language (GML) standard provides basic types and a framework for defining geo-informational data models such as CityGML and IndoorGML, which provide standard information models for 3D city modelling and lightweight indoor network navigation. Location information, which is the semantic engine that fuses big geo-information data, is however, discarded in these standards. The Chinese national standard of Indoor Multi-Dimensional Location GML (IndoorLocationGML) presented in this study can be used in ubiquitous indoor location intelligent applications for people and robots. IndoorLocationGML is intended as an indoor multi-dimensional location information model and exchange data format standard, mainly for indoor positioning and navigation. This paper introduces the standard’s main features: (1) terminology; (2) indoor location information model using a Unified Modeling Language (UML) class diagram; (3) indoor location information markup language based on GML; and (4) use cases. A typical application of the standard is then discussed. This standard is applicable to the expression, storage, and distribution of indoor multi-dimensional location information, and to the seamless integration of indoor–outdoor location information. The reference and basis are therefore relevant to publishers, managers, users, and developers of indoor navigation and location-based services (LBS)
Original languageEnglish
Article number220
Number of pages21
JournalISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • indoor location
  • location-based service
  • standard
  • navigation


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