The impact of many external factors, such as wind, visibility and current, on the behavior of vessels in ports and waterways has not been investigated systematically in existing maritime traffic models. In order to fill the current knowledge gap and provide a basis for developing a new model to effectively simulate maritime traffic, the influences of wind, visibility and current as well as vessel encounters on vessel behavior (vessel speed, course and relative distance to starboard bank) have been investigated in this study by analyzing Automatic Identification System data collected from the port of Rotterdam. It is found that wind, visibility, current and encounters have significant impact on the vessel speed and relative distance to starboard bank, while vessel course is mainly affected by current and encounters. The results also showed that the vessels would adapt their speed, course and relative distance to starboard bank during encounters. These findings showed the importance of considering external factors and encounters in simulating vessel behavior in restricted waterways and provide a starting point for building up more comprehensive maritime traffic models.
- Automatic Identification System data
- Uninfluenced and influenced vessel behavior
- External condition
- Overtaking encounter
- Head-on encounter
- Ports and waterways