Influence of martensite/austenite interfaces on bainite formation in low-alloy steels below Ms

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Bainite formation in steels typically starts at austenite grain boundaries and continues through nucleation of bainite at newly formed bainitic ferrite/austenite interfaces. Recent experimental evidence has pointed out that austenite to bainite transformation can also proceed in the presence of martensite. Studies suggest that the presence of athermal martensite formed prior to bainite formation can accelerate the kinetics of bainite formation with the martensite/austenite interfaces acting as potential nucleation sites. In this work, a kinetic model based on the displacive mechanism of bainite formation is adapted to isolate the impact of martensite/austenite interfaces on the overall rate of bainite formation when bainite formation occurs in the presence of previously formed martensite. This adapted kinetic model is validated using dilatometer studies published in the literature on a silicon-containing low-carbon steel in which bainite formation experiments are performed both below and above the Ms temperature. The results suggest that the formalism of the existing kinetic theory can describe the effects of martensite/austenite interfaces on the bainite formation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)394-405
JournalActa Materialia
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Bainite
  • Isothermal heat treatments
  • Kinetics
  • Nucleation

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