Influence of printing parameters on 3D printing engineered cementitious composites (3DP-ECC)

Wen Zhou, Yamei Zhang, Lei Ma, Victor C. Li*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


3D printing of engineered cementitious composites (3DP-ECC) serves as an effective means to enable digital and automated construction while removing the dependence of steel reinforcement typical in normal concrete construction. As generally recognized, process control in 3DP is as crucial as material constituents to the performance of the printed structure. Printing parameters pose direct influence on the micro-structure of material, which further impacts the macro-scale properties of printed ECC. In this paper, the effects of different nozzle standoff distances and nozzle travelling speeds are investigated. It is found that lowering the nozzle standoff distance within a certain range increases the in-plane tensile strength and strain capacity of 3DP-ECC by 39% and 30%, respectively. The tensile performance is also enhanced by a moderate printing speed. In addition, a 141% increase in interfacial fiber bridging force is found with elevated nozzle standoff distance. Furthermore, the micro-structure observed via μ-CT correlates well with the printing parameters, micro-structure and macro-scale properties of 3DP-ECC.
Original languageEnglish
Article number104562
Number of pages12
JournalCement and Concrete Composites
Publication statusPublished - 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Engineered cementitious composites (ECC)
  • 3D printing
  • Mechanical properties
  • Micro-structure
  • Printing parameter


Dive into the research topics of 'Influence of printing parameters on 3D printing engineered cementitious composites (3DP-ECC)'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this