Influence of slope of grain on the mechanical properties of tropical hardwoods and the consequences for grading

Geert Ravenshorst*, Wolfgang Gard, Jan Willem van de Kuilen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
45 Downloads (Pure)


The main parameter that influences the bending strength of timber from tropical hardwood is the slope of grain. Although, in the grading rules, a specific threshold value is given, in these hardwoods, the global slope of grain is very difficult to quantify by visual assessment. The slope of grain measured after testing gives a better indication, but still it can only poorly describe the Hankinson relations. By rewriting the Hankinson relations, the slope of grain can be determined from the bending strength test values and from the MOE test value, both in combination with the density values and constants derived by non-linear regression analysis. These two values correlate very well, and the average value is designated as the theoretical slope of grain. With the theoretical slope of grain, five test samples of the tropical wood species okan were evaluated, and slope of grain values of 0.3 were observed, where 0.1 is the limit value. Because all pieces passed the visual grading method as applied in practice, slope of grain values should be incorporated in the strength class assignment test program, when these qualities cannot be ruled out for coming on the market. The (dynamic) modulus of elasticity can be used to evaluate the occurrence of the desired range of slope of grain values in the test samples.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)915-921
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Journal of Wood and Wood Products
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2020


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