The tremendous population growth and the booming economy in India have a lot of critical impacts on energy demand, consumption, and supply in the next decades. Natural resources as well in India are limited, but particularly the growing middle class with increasing incomes wants to improve their quality of life. This contradiction can only be solved with a strategic energy efficiency scheme in India. This chapter deals with the threats and opportunities of the building development in the next decades. Today, 40 % of the total energy consumption worldwide is covered by residential and nonresidential buildings. Energy- and cost-efficient design, material use, and maintenance of old and new buildings interwoven with higher user mobility are crucial points of smart cities in the future. Therefore, education, particularly higher education; R&D; and climate-related innovations are the main drivers for a better quality of life and for the more participation in fighting against the climate change. In an ongoing user study in five big Indian cities, we want to explore the awareness of the Indian people in urban areas between the contradictory contexts of energy consumption and the needs and expectations of comfortable living.