Batteries are one of the main tools to provide the flexibility distribution and transmission systems need due to their increasing dependence on weather conditions. However, environmental and economic factors pose a significant problem. New types of batteries that do not rely on rare earth metals and organic solvents but instead use water and more common ions could be a cost-effective and environmentally safe way to provide energy storage in the future. We studied the performance of sea-salt cells designed as a low-cost, environmentally friendly method to store electricity. We used a constant current charge/discharge test with different currents, from 50 mA to 300 mA, to identify the maximum efficiencies of the cell. Then, we introduced a new strategy to determine the cut-off voltage to discharge the battery, inspired by the maximum power point found in photovoltaics. We used a constant voltage charge to determine the cell’s energy density. However, evidence of side reactions urged us to use constant current charge/discharge tests to identify the battery’s capacity based on the efficiencies drop. Results showed a maximum energy efficiency of 74.6% at 200 mA and a maximum Coulombic efficiency of 88.7% at 300 mA. The cut-off voltage of the cell during discharge should be between 1.4 V and 1.6 V. The energy densities range from 10.1 Wh/kg(6.53 WhL) with an efficiency of 57.5% and 4.18 Wh/kg(2.7 WhL) with an efficiency of 69.8%.
|Title of host publication
|2023 IEEE 17th International Conference on Compatibility, Power Electronics and Power Engineering (CPE-POWERENG)
|Place of Publication
|Number of pages
|Published - 2023
|2023 IEEE 17th International Conference on Compatibility, Power Electronics and Power Engineering - Tallinn, Estonia
Duration: 14 Jun 2023 → 16 Jun 2023
Conference number: 17
|2023 IEEE 17th International Conference on Compatibility, Power Electronics and Power Engineering
|14/06/23 → 16/06/23
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Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.
- Energy storage
- Sea-salt battery
- Zn battery