Integer estimability in GNSS networks

A. Khodabandeh, P. J.G. Teunissen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)
83 Downloads (Pure)


Estimability and S-systems are important concepts when dealing with rank-defect models. In this contribution, we generalize the concept of estimability to integer estimability and determine the necessary and sufficient conditions that need to be satisfied for parameter functions to be integer estimable. This is then worked out and applied to the integer estimability analysis of GNSS observation equations. We hereby consider both network ambiguity resolution and single-receiver PPP-RTK ambiguity resolution. In our analyses, use is made of graph theory and properties of the ambiguity incidence matrices of the bipartite and connected network graphs.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1805-1819
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Geodesy
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Ambiguity graphs
  • Ambiguity S-basis
  • Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS)
  • Integer ambiguity resolution (IAR)
  • Integer estimability


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