Integrated carbon capture and utilization to convert CO2 to formic acid and formaldehyde

Maartje Feenstra*, Daniel van Laake, Stella Chatzisakoula, Andrea Ramírez, Earl Goetheer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review


Carbon utilisation is gaining attention on a scientific and public level, as part of a strategy to close the carbon cycle. Existing CO2 utilisation strategies, based on the use of pure CO2, lead to relatively high cost for e-fuels and commodity chemicals. This paper proposes an integration of CO2 capture with CO2 utilisation, directly in the CO2 capture solvent, to improve the cost performance. In this concept, ammonium bicarbonate is produced by CO2 capture and subsequently hydrogenated to ammonium formate. With the use of a thermal split, the ammonium formate can be split into a formic acid product solution and ammonia. Techno-economics show the potential of this route supported by proof-of-concept experiments for the innovative steps in the process. Assessment of a 100 ktonne/y CO2 capture and utilization leads to a formic acid production price of 365-456 €/t, using a varying hydrogen price of 2-4 €/kg, which is in the price range of industrial formic acid.

Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Event15th Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies Conference, GHGT 2021 - Virtual, Online, United Arab Emirates
Duration: 15 Mar 202118 Mar 2021


Conference15th Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies Conference, GHGT 2021
Country/TerritoryUnited Arab Emirates
CityVirtual, Online


  • Ammonia
  • CO2 capture
  • formaldehyde
  • formic acid
  • in-situ hydrogenation
  • proof of concept
  • techno-economic analysis


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