Integrated PV Charging of EV Fleet Based on Energy Prices, V2G and Offer of Reserves

Gautham Ram Chandra Mouli, Mahdi Kefayati, Ross Baldick, Pavol Bauer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

106 Citations (Scopus)
223 Downloads (Pure)


Workplace charging of electric vehicles (EV) from photovoltaic (PV) panels installed on an office building can provide several benefits. This includes the local production and use of PV energy for charging the EV and making use of dynamic tariffs from the grid to schedule the energy exchange with the grid. The long parking time at the workplace provides the chance for the EV to support the grid via vehicle-to-grid technology, the use of a single EV charger for charging several EVs by multiplexing and the offer of ancillary services to the grid for up and down regulation. Further, distribution network constraints can be considered to limit the power and prevent the overloading of the grid. A single mixed integer linear programming (MILP) formulation that considers all the above applications has been proposed in this paper for a charging a fleet of EVs from PV. The MILP is implemented as a receding-horizon model predictive energy management system. Numerical simulations based on market and PV data in Austin, Texas have shown 32% to 651% reduction in the net cost of EV charging from PV when compared to immediate and average rate charging policies.
Original languageEnglish
Article number8068996
Pages (from-to)1313-1325
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Charging station
  • distribution system
  • electric vehicle
  • photovoltaic system
  • regulation services
  • scheduling
  • smart charging
  • smart grids


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