Integrated route choice and assignment model for fixed and flexible public transport systems

Jishnu Narayan*, Oded Cats, Niels van Oort, Serge Hoogendoorn

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)
27 Downloads (Pure)


The recent technological innovations in various ICT platforms have given rise to innovative mobility solutions. Such systems could potentially address some of the inherent shortcomings of a line/schedule based public transport system. Previous studies either assumed that flexible on-demand services are used as an exclusive door-to-door service or offered as a feeder connection to high-capacity public transport services. However, users may combine line/schedule based public transport systems (Fixed PT) and on-demand services (Flexible PT) so that their travel impedance is minimized. To this end, we propose a multimodal route choice and assignment model that allows users combining Fixed and Flexible PT or use them as individual modes while demand for these services is endogenously determined. The model takes into account the dynamic demand–supply interaction using an iterative learning framework. Flexible public transport can be used to perform any part of the trip, ranging from a first/last mile service to an exclusive direct door-to-door connection. The developed model is implemented in an agent based simulation framework. The model is applied to a network centered around the city of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Scenarios where Fixed PT and Flexible PT are offered as mutually exclusive modes or can be combined into a single journey, are analysed. Results indicate that Flexible PT is predominantly used for covering <30% of the trip length, indicating that it is mainly used as an access or egress mode to Fixed PT. This results with an overall increase in the share of public transport trips. Also, the average waiting time of Flexible PT users when used in combination with Fixed PT are lower than the scenario where each of them is used as an exclusive mode.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102631
Number of pages20
JournalTransportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Agent-based simulation
  • Multi modal path choice
  • On-demand public transport
  • On-demand transport
  • Public transport


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