This paper presents the results of a demonstration project, including building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) solar panels, a residential building and a hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) for combined mobility and power generation, aiming to achieve a net zero-energy residential building target. The experiment was conducted as part of the Car as Power Plant project at The Green Village in the Netherlands. The main objective was to assess the end-user's potential of implementing FCEVs in vehicle-to-grid operation (FCEV2G) to act as a local energy source. FCEV2G field test performance with a Hyundai ix35 FCEV are presented. The car was adapted using a power output socket capable of delivering up to 10 kW direct current (DC) to the alternating current (AC) national grid when parked, via an off-board (grid-tie) inverter. A Tank-To-AC-Grid efficiency (analogous to Tank-To-Wheel efficiency when driving) of 44% (measured on a Higher Heating Value basis) was obtained when the car was operating in vehicle-to-grid (V2G) mode at the maximum power output. By collecting and analysing real data on the FCEV power production in V2G mode, and on BIPV production and household consumption, two different operating modes for the FCEV offering balanced services to a residential microgrid were identified, namely fixed power output and load following. Based on the data collected, one-year simulations of a microgrid consisting of 10 all-electric dwellings and 5 cars with the different FCEV2G modes of operation were performed. Simulation results were evaluated on the factors of autonomy, self-consumption of locally produced energy and net-energy consumption by implementing different energy indicators. The results show that utilizing an FCEV working in V2G mode can reduce the annual imported electricity from the grid by approximately 71% over one year, and aiding the buildings in the microgrid to achieve a net zero-energy building target. Furthermore, the simulation results show that utilizing the FCEV2G setup in both modes analysed, could be economically beneficial for the end-user if hydrogen prices at the pump fall below 8.24 €/kg.
- Zero-energy building