Integration methods for distributed sound sources

Roberto Merino-Martínez, Pieter Sijtsma, Alejandro Rubio Carpio, Riccardo Zamponi, Salil Luesutthiviboon, Anwar M.N. Malgoezar, Mirjam Snellen, Christophe Schram, Dick G. Simons

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)
73 Downloads (Pure)


Most acoustic imaging methods assume the presence of point sound sources and, hence, may fail to correctly estimate the sound emissions of distributed sound sources, such as trailing-edge noise. In this contribution, three integration techniques are suggested to overcome this issue based on models considering a single point source, a line source, and several line sources, respectively. Two simulated benchmark cases featuring distributed sound sources are employed to compare the performance of these integration techniques with respect to other well-known acoustic imaging methods. The considered integration methods provide the best performance in retrieving the source levels and require short computation times. In addition, the negative effects of the presence of unwanted noise sources, such as corner sources in wind-tunnel measurements, can be eliminated. A sensitivity analysis shows that the integration technique based on a line source is robust with respect to the choice of the integration area (shape, position, and mesh fineness). This technique is applied to a trailing-edge-noise experiment in an open-jet wind tunnel featuring a NACA 0018 airfoil. The location and far-field noise emissions of the trailing-edge line source were calculated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)444-469
Number of pages26
JournalInternational Journal of Aeroacoustics
Issue number4-5
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Acoustic imaging
  • integration methods
  • porous trailing edge
  • trailing-edge noise

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