Integration of human excreta management and solid waste management in practice

Mariska Ronteltap*, Raju Khadka, Abdul Rasheed Sinnathurai, Stan Maessen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, the possible integration of human excreta management and solid waste management is studied. We focus on integration options with respect to transport and processing, taking into consideration the sustainability aspects ''technical/performance'' and to a smaller extent ''institutional/organisational''. We do this for a case study in the Kirtipur Municipality of Nepal. Data gathered by interviews and field studies shows that different combinations of management systems were applied in rural, peri-urban and urban areas. Segregation or reuse of the waste is taking place on a very limited scale only; most of the waste is transported to the two municipal dump sites. Toilet waste is transported to the river through a sewer line, or collected in septic tanks or pit latrines. These are emptied manually or by pumping trucks, which empty into the river as well. With the current set-up, integration with respect to transport is not beneficial. In contrast, combined processing of both human excreta and the organic fraction of solid waste is considered to have high potential. The study shows that integration possibilities are worth considering because mutual benefits can arise. Giving a one-fits-all guideline how to reach this is however not feasible. The first step in achieving sustainable integration has to be an intensive stakeholder and process analysis. When mapped well, this analysis has the potential to reveal the possibilities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)369-376
Number of pages8
Issue number1-3
Publication statusPublished - 15 Nov 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Biogas production
  • Co-composting
  • Human excreta
  • Integrated solid waste management (ISWM)
  • Integration
  • Organic waste


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