Interlayer closed-loop control of forming geometries for wire and arc additive manufacturing based on fuzzy-logic inference

Yongzhe Li, Xinlei Li, Guangjun Zhang*, Imre Horváth, Qinglin Han

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)
118 Downloads (Pure)


The deposition process of wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) is usually planned based on a bead geometry model (BGM), which represents the relationship between bead geometries (e.g. width, height) and required deposition parameters. However, the actual deposition situation may deviate from the one in which the BGM is built, such as varied heat dissipation conditions, resulting in morphological changes of deposited beads and geometrical errors in the formed parts. In this paper, a novel control mechanism for enhancing the fabrication accuracy of WAAM based on fuzzy-logic inference is proposed. It considers the geometrical errors measured on already deposited layers and deposition context to adjust deposition parameters of beads in the subsequent layer, forming an interlayer closed-loop control (ICLC) mechanism. This paper not only presents the theoretical fundamentals of the ICLC mechanism but also reports the technical details about utilizing this mechanism to control the forming height of multi-layer multi-bead (MLMB) components. A fuzzy-logic inference machine was applied as the core component for calculating speed change of bead deposition based on height error and previously applied change. In terms of validation, the effectiveness of the proposed control mechanism and the implemented controller was investigated through both simulative studies and real-life experiments. The fabricated cuboid blocks showed good accuracy in height with a maximum error of 0.20 mm. The experimental results implied that the proposed ICLC approach facilitates deposition continuity of WAAM, and thus enables process automation for robotic manufacturing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)35-47
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Manufacturing Processes
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Closed-loop control
  • Fuzzy-logic inference
  • Interlayer adjustment
  • Multi-layer multi-bead deposition
  • Wire and arc additive manufacturing


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