A multi-element and multi-phase internal oxidation model that couples thermodynamics with kinetics is developed to predict the internal oxidation behaviour of Fe–Mn–Cr steels as a function of annealing time and oxygen partial pressure. To validate the simulation results, selected Fe–Mn–Cr steels were annealed at 950 °C for 1–16 h in a gas mixture of Ar with 5 vol% H2 and dew points of − 30, − 10 and 10 °C. The measured kinetics of internal oxidation as well as the concentration depth profiles of internal oxides in the annealed Fe–Mn–Cr steels are in agreement with the predictions. Internal MnO and MnCr2O4 are formed during annealing, and both two oxides have a relatively low solubility product. Local thermodynamic equilibrium is established in the internal oxidation zone of Fe–Mn–Cr steels during annealing and the internal oxidation kinetics are solely controlled by diffusion of oxygen. The internal oxidation of Fe–Mn–Cr steels follows the parabolic rate law. The parabolic rate constant increases with annealing dew point, but decreases with the concentration of the alloying elements.
- FeMnCr steels
- Internal oxidation