Interrogation of a ring-resonator ultrasound sensor using a fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer

Fellipe Grillo Peternella, Boling Ouyang, Roland Horsten, Michael Haverdings, Pim Kat, Jaap Caro

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We experimentally demonstrate an interrogation procedure of a ring-resonator ultrasound sensor using a fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). The sensor comprises a silicon ring resonator (RR) located on a silicon-oxide membrane, designed to have its lowest vibrational mode in the MHz range, which is the range of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging. Ultrasound incident on the membrane excites its vibrational mode and as a result induces a modulation of the resonance wavelength of the RR, which is a measure of the amplitude of the ultrasound waves. The interrogation procedure developed is based on the mathematical description of the interrogator operation presented in Appendix A, where we identify the amplitude of the angular deflection Φ0 on the circle arc periodically traced in the plane of the two orthogonal interrogator voltages, as the principal sensor signal. Interrogation is demonstrated for two sensors with membrane vibrational modes at 1.3 and 0.77 MHz, by applying continuous wave ultrasound in a wide pressure range. Ultrasound is detected at a pressure as low as 1.2 Pa. Two optical path differences (OPDs) of the MZI are used. Thus, different interference conditions of the optical signals are defined, leading to a higher apparent sensitivity for the larger OPD, which is accompanied by a weaker signal, however. Independent measurements using the modulation method yield a resonance modulation per unit of pressure of 21.4 fm/Pa (sensor #1) and 103.8 fm/Pa (sensor #2).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31622-31639
Number of pages18
JournalOptics Express
Issue number25
Publication statusPublished - 2017


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  • The Fourier transform interrogator

    Grillo Peternella, F., 27 Sept 2021, 152 p.

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