Introducing a comprehensive physics-based modelling framework for tandem and other PV systems

M. R. Vogt*, C. Ruiz Tobon, A. Alcañiz, P. Procel, Y. Blom, A. Nour El Din, T. Stark, Z. Wang, E. Garcia Goma, J. G. Etxebarria, H. Ziar, M. Zeman, R. Santbergen, O. Isabella

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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We introduce a novel simulation tool capable of calculating the energy yield of a PV system based on its fundamental material properties and using self-consistent models. Thus, our simulation model can operate without measurements of a PV device. It combines wave and ray optics and a dedicated semiconductor simulation to model the optoelectronic PV device properties resulting in the IV-curve. The system surroundings are described via spectrally resolved ray tracing resulting in a cell resolved irradiance distribution, and via the fluid dynamics-based thermal model, in the individual cell temperatures. A lumped-element model is used to calculate the IV-curves of each solar cell for every hour of the year. These are combined factoring in the interconnection to obtain the PV module IV-curves, which connect to the inverter for calculating the AC energy yield. In our case study, we compare two types of 2 terminal perovskite/silicon tandem modules with STC PV module efficiencies of 27.7% and 28.6% with a reference c-Si module with STC PV module efficiency of 20.9%. In four different climates, we show that tandem PV modules operate at 1–1.9 °C lower yearly irradiance weighted average temperatures compared to c-Si. We find that the effect of current mismatch is significantly overestimated in pure optical studies, as they do not account for fill factor gains. The specific yields in kWh/kWp of the tandem PV systems are between −2.7% and +0.4% compared to the reference c-Si system in all four simulated climates. Thus, we find that the lab performance of the simulated tandem PV system translates from the laboratory to outdoors comparable to c-Si systems.

Original languageEnglish
Article number111944
Number of pages12
JournalSolar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Energy yield modelling
  • Operating temperature
  • Opto-electric device simulation
  • Pervoskite/silicon tandem
  • Specific yield
  • Tandem PV systems


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