Iron and Manganese Alginate for Rechargeable Battery Electrodes

Lindah K. Kiriinya, Markus C. Kwakernaak, Simone C.D. Van den Akker, Guy L.M.M. Verbist, Stephen J. Picken, Erik M. Kelder*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

42 Downloads (Pure)


We present a sustainable, inherently safe battery chemistry that is based on widely available and cheap materials, that is, iron and manganese hosted in alginate bio-material known from the food and medical industry. The resulting battery can be recycled to allow circularity. The electrodes were synthesised by the alginate caging the multi-valent metals to form a hydrogel in an aqueous environment. Characterisation includes FTIR, XPS and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The electrochemical performance of the electrodes was investigated by performing cyclic voltammetry (CV) and (dis)charge experiments. Mn and Fe ions show good co-ordination with the alginic acid with higher oxidation states demonstrating complex bonding behaviour. The non-optimised iron and manganese alginate electrodes already exhibit a cycling efficiency of 98% and 69%, respectively. This work shows that Fe and Mn atomically disperse in a bio-based host material and can act as electrodes in an aqueous battery chemistry. While demonstrated at cell level, it is furthermore explained how these materials can form the basis for a (semi-solid) flow cell.

Original languageEnglish
Article number639
Number of pages12
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • alginates
  • electrode material
  • polysaccharide
  • rechargeable battery


Dive into the research topics of 'Iron and Manganese Alginate for Rechargeable Battery Electrodes'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this