Is the take-over paradigm a mere convenience?

Joost de Winter*, Neville Stanton, Yke Bauke Eisma

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)
26 Downloads (Pure)


The last decade has seen a surge of driving simulator research on automation-to-manual take-overs. In this commentary, we argue that most research within the take-over paradigm bears little resemblance to real automated driving. Furthermore, we claim that results within this paradigm could already be known based on published research from the previous century. It is concluded that take-over studies have characteristics of a self-sustaining convenience. We end with recommendations for out-of-the-box take-over research that may contribute to the development of safer automated vehicles.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100370
Number of pages5
JournalTransportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Automated driving
  • Brake response time
  • Operational design domain
  • Take-over


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