Key characteristics and modelling of bigels systems: A review

Ahmad Shakeel*, Ujala Farooq, Tanveer Iqbal, Saima Yasin, Francesca R. Lupi, Domenico Gabriele

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

72 Citations (Scopus)
260 Downloads (Pure)


Bigels are interesting semisolid formulations with better properties for different applications such as cosmetics and pharmaceutical systems. Due to the mixing of two phases of different nature (polar and apolar), bigels possess some interesting features like ability to deliver hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs, better spreadability and water washability, improved permeability of drugs, enhanced hydration of stratum corneum and ability to manipulate the drug release rate. The main objective of this review article is to provide a thorough insight into the important characteristics of bigels together with the discussion on modelling of bigel systems to relate their properties with individual constituents and different parameters. Moreover, some important applications of bigels are also discussed by considering some examples from the literature.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)932-953
Number of pages22
JournalMaterials Science and Engineering C
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Bigels
  • Cosmetics
  • Drug delivery
  • Hydrogels
  • Modelling
  • Organogels


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