In this paper, land subsidence susceptibility was assessed for Shahryar County in Iran using the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) machine learning algorithm. Another aim of the present paper was to assess if ensembles of ANFIS with two meta-heuristic algorithms (imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) and gray wolf optimization (GWO)) would yield a better prediction performance. A remote sensing synthetic aperture radar (SAR) dataset from 2019 to 2020 and the persistent-scatterer SAR interferometry (PS-InSAR) technique were used to obtain a land subsidence inventory of the study area and use it for training and testing models. Resulting PS points were divided into two parts of 70% and 30% for training and testing the models, respectively. For susceptibility analysis, eleven conditioning factors were taken into account: the altitude, slope, aspect, plan curvature, profile curvature, topographic wetness index (TWI), distance to stream, distance to road, stream density, groundwater drawdown, and land use/land cover (LULC). A frequency ratio (FR) was applied to assess the correlation of factors to subsidence occurrence. The prediction power of the models and their generated land subsidence susceptibility maps (LSSMs) were validated using the root mean square error (RMSE) value and area under curve of receiver operating characteristic (AUC-ROC) analysis. The ROC results showed that ANFIS-ICA had the best accuracy (0.932) among the models (ANFIS-GWO (0.926), ANFIS (0.908)). The results of this work showed that optimizing ANFIS with meta-heuristics considerably improves LSSM accuracy although ANFIS alone had an acceptable result.
- Geographic information system (GIS)
- Land subsidence
- Machine learning algorithm