Large-scale demonstration of the sulfate reduction autotrophic denitrification nitrification integrated (SANI®) process in saline sewage treatment

Di Wu, George A. Ekama, Ho Kwong Chui, Bo Wang, Yan Xiang Cui, Tian Wei Hao, Mark C M van Loosdrecht, Guang Hao Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

78 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Recently, the Sulfate reduction Autotrophic denitrification Nitrification Integrated (SANI®) process was developed for the removal of organics and nitrogen with sludge minimization in the treatment of saline sewage (with a Sulfate-to-COD ratio > 0.5 mg SO4 2--S/mg COD) generated from seawater used for toilet flushing or salt water intrusion. Previously investigated in lab- and pilot-scale, this process has now been scaled up to a 800-1000 m3/d full-scale demonstration plant. In this paper, the design and operating parameters of the SANI demo plant built in Hong Kong are analyzed. After a 4-month start-up period, a stable sulfur cycle-based biological nitrogen removal system having a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12.5 h was developed, thereby reducing the amount of space needed by 30-40% compared with conventional activated sludge (CAS) plants in Hong Kong. The demo plant satisfactorily met the local effluent discharge limits during both the summer and winter periods. In winter (sewage temperature of 21 ± 1 °C), the maximum volumetric loading rates for organic conversion, nitrification, and denitrification were 2 kg COD/(m3·d), 0.39 kg N/(m3·d), and 0.35 kg N/(m3·d), respectively. The biological sludge production rate of SANI process was 0.35 ± 0.08 g TSSproduced/g BOD5 (or 0.19 ± 0.05 g TSS/g COD), which is 60-70% lower than that of the CAS process in Hong Kong. While further process optimization is possible, this study demonstrates the SANI process can be potentially implemented for the treatment of saline sewage.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)496-507
Number of pages12
JournalWater Research
Volume100
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2016

Keywords

  • Saline sewage treatment
  • SANI process
  • Scale-up
  • Sludge minimization

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