Latency-Constrained Fading Mitigation for Coherent Optical Feeder Links based on Space-Time-Frequency Coding

C. Willem Korevaar*, Rudolf Saathof, Tara van Abkoude, Niek J. Doelman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review

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Optical feeder links (OFLs) benefit from the vast amount of bandwidth available in the THz-regime of the electromagnetic spectrum, and can be considered as enablers for future terabit-per-second satellite systems. A particular challenge for OFLs is to mitigate the effects of fading, caused by a combination of turbulence-induced scintillation, beam wander and pointing errors. The conventional solution is to exploit temporal diversity by a combination of interleaving and forward error correction (FEC). In this study we present an overview of fading mitigation techniques for latency-constrained coherent ground-to-satellite OFL and contribute a generic model which combines various diversity schemes including temporal, spatial, frequency and site diversity. To unlock spatial diversity, multi-beam space-time block coding and multi-beam, multi-λ are proposed and simulated. Though space-time block coding (STBC) provides more diversity gain, it requires accurate timing synchronization at the transmitter and channel state information at the receiver. Temporal, frequency and site diversity all rely on some form of interleaving and the potential diversity, pros and cons of each of these diversity techniques are covered in the presented study. In general, with a strict latency constraint and a tight link budget, frequency diversity, spatial diversity - either by STBC or multi-beam multi-λ - and site diversity can be effective methods to mitigate the effects of fading and close the link budget.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationInternational Conference on Space Optics, ICSO 2022
EditorsKyriaki Minoglou, Nikos Karafolas, Bruno Cugny
Number of pages11
ISBN (Electronic)9781510668034
Publication statusPublished - 2023
Event2022 International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO 2022 - Dubrovnik, Croatia
Duration: 3 Oct 20227 Oct 2022

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X


Conference2022 International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO 2022

Bibliographical note

This study has been conducted as part of the TNO Early Research Program “Laser Satellite Communication - High Throughput Optical Feeder Links”.


  • diversity
  • fading
  • free space optics
  • ground-to-satellite
  • Optical feeder links
  • space-time block coding
  • spatial diversity
  • turbulence


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