Layer-by-Layer Electrode Fabrication for Improved Performance of Porous Polyimide-Based Supercapacitors

Niranjala Fernando, H.V. Veldhuizen, Atsushi Nagai, S. van der Zwaag, Amor Abdelkader*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
15 Downloads (Pure)


Nanoporous polymers are becoming increasingly interesting materials for electrochemical applications, as their large surface areas with redox-active sites allow efficient adsorption and diffusion of ions. However, their limited electrical conductivity remains a major obstacle in practical applications. The conventional approach that alleviates this problem is the hybridisation of the polymer with carbon-based additives, but this directly prevents the utilisation of the maximum capacity of the polymers. Here, we report a layer-by-layer fabrication technique where we separated the active (porous polymer, top) layer and the conductive (carbon, bottom) layer and used these “layered” electrodes in a supercapacitor (SC). Through this approach, direct contact with the electrolyte and polymer material is greatly enhanced. With extensive electrochemical characterisation techniques, we show that the layered electrodes allowed a significant contribution of fast faradic surface reactions to the overall capacitance. The electrochemical performance of the layered-electrode SC outperformed other reported porous polymer-based devices with a specific gravimetric capacitance of 388 F·g−1 and an outstanding energy density of 65 Wh·kg−1 at a current density of 0.4 A·g−1. The device also showed outstanding cyclability with 90% of capacitance retention after 5000 cycles at 1.6 A·g−1, comparable to the reported porous polymer-based SCs. Thus, the introduction of a layered electrode structure would pave the way for more effective utilisation of porous organic polymers in future energy storage/harvesting and sensing devices by exploiting their nanoporous architecture and limiting the negative effects of the carbon/binder matrix.
Original languageEnglish
Article number4
Number of pages14
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • nanoporous polymer
  • supercapacitor
  • polyimide
  • electrochemistry
  • electrode fabrication
  • layer-by-layer
  • Polyimide
  • Electrochemistry
  • Supercapacitor
  • Nanoporous polymer
  • Electrode fabrication
  • Layer-by-layer


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