Light-In-Flight Imaging by a Silicon Image Sensor: Toward the Theoretical Highest Frame Rate

Takeharu Goji Etoh, Tomo Okinaka, Yasuhide Takano, Kohsei Takehara, Hitoshi Nakano, Kazuhiro Shimonomura, Taeko Ando, Nguyen Ngo, Chao Zhang, More Authors

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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Light in flight was captured by a single shot of a newly developed backside-illuminated multi-collection-gate image sensor at a frame interval of 10 ns without high-speed gating devices such as a streak camera or post data processes. This paper reports the achievement and further evolution of the image sensor toward the theoretical temporal resolution limit of 11.1 ps derived by the authors. The theoretical analysis revealed the conditions to minimize the temporal resolution. Simulations show that the image sensor designed following the specified conditions and fabricated by existing technology will achieve a frame interval of 50 ps. The sensor, 200 times faster than our latest sensor will innovate advanced analytical apparatuses using time-of-flight or lifetime measurements, such as imaging TOF-MS, FLIM, pulse neutron tomography, PET, LIDAR, and more, beyond these known applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalSensors (Basel, Switzerland)
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • light-in-flight
  • theoretical temporal resolution limit
  • ultra-high-speed image sensor

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