Lime Treatment: Evaluation for Use in Dike Applications in the Netherlands

M. Konstadinou*, G. Herrier, T. Stoutjesdijk, F. Losma, C. Zwanenburg, R. Dobbe

*Corresponding author for this work

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This study aimed to assess the suitability of lime treatment for use in dikes in the Netherlands. The effect of this technique on the behavior of a Dutch clay was addressed by comparing the detailed response of lime-treated and natural samples at different lime contents (1.25% and 2.25%) and curing periods. A series of laboratory tests consisting of index classification, constant rate of strain, and triaxial and hole erosion tests were performed. The results demonstrated that lime treatment altered the soil response. Differences were observed in the physical, compressibility, strength, and erodibility properties. It was found that lime improved considerably the resistance to compression and erosion, but the effect on hydraulic conductivity was limited. The triaxial test results showed that lime treatment was particularly effective at low stress (<25 kPa) and low strain levels (<10%). During shearing, lime-treated samples exhibited dilative tendencies and enhanced effective strength properties until a stress-strain state was reached that was believed to be related to the breakage of the bonding structure of the sample. The findings of this study demonstrate that the merits of lime treatment can be of particular benefit in dike applications, particularly when the focus is on improving soil erosion resistance.

Original languageEnglish
Article number04022465
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Materials in Civil Engineering
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Compressibility
  • Dike
  • Erosion resistance
  • Lime treatment
  • Organic clay
  • Shear strength
  • Stress-strain response


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