Literature Review on Co-Located Collaboration Modeling Using Multimodal Learning Analytics - Can We Go the Whole Nine Yards?

Sambit Praharaj*, Maren Scheffel, Hendrik Drachsler, Marcus Specht

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)
42 Downloads (Pure)


Collaboration is one of the important 21st-century skills. It can take place in remote or co-located settings. Co-located collaboration (CC) is a very complex process that involves subtle human interactions that can be described with indicators like eye gaze, speaking time, pitch, and social skills from different modalities. With the advent of sensors, multimodal learning analytics has gained momentum to detect CC quality. Indicators (or low-level events) can be used to detect CC quality with the help of measurable markers (i.e., indexes composed of one or more indicators) which give the high-level collaboration process definition. However, this understanding is incomplete without considering the scenarios (such as problem solving or meetings) of CC. The scenario of CC affects the set of indicators considered: For instance, in collaborative programming, grabbing the mouse from the partner is an indicator of collaboration; whereas in collaborative meetings, eye gaze, and audio level are indicators of collaboration. This can be a result of the differing goals and fundamental parameters (such as group behavior, interaction, or composition) in each scenario. In this article, we present our work on profiles of indicators on the basis of a scenario-driven prioritization, the parameters in different CC scenarios are mapped onto the indicators and the available indexes. This defines the conceptual model to support the design of a CC quality detection and prediction system.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9490371
Pages (from-to)367-385
Number of pages19
JournalIEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • CC analytics
  • Co-located collaboration (CC)
  • collaboration analytics
  • collaborative learning tools
  • multimodal interactions
  • multimodal learning analytics (MMLA)


Dive into the research topics of 'Literature Review on Co-Located Collaboration Modeling Using Multimodal Learning Analytics - Can We Go the Whole Nine Yards?'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this