This paper presents novel separate methods for finding optimal locations, sizes of multiple distributed generators (DGs) simultaneously and operational power factor in order to minimize power loss and improve the voltage profile in the distribution system. A load concentration factor (LCF) is introduced to select the optimal location(s) for DG placement. Exact loss formula based analytical expressions are derived for calculating the optimal sizes of any number of DGs simultaneously. Since neither optimizing the location nor optimizing the size is done iteratively, like existing methods do, the simulation time is reduced considerably. The exhaustive method is used to find the operational power factor, and it is shown with the results that the losses are further reduced and voltage profile is improved by operating the DGs at operational power factor. Results for power loss reduction and voltage profile improvement in IEEE 37 and 119 node radial distribution systems are presented and compared with the the loss sensitivity factor (LSF) method, improved analytical (IA) and exhaustive load flow method (ELF). The comparison for operational power factor and other power factors is also presented.
Bibliographical noteThis article belongs to the Special Issue Distributed Renewable Generation.
- loss minimization
- voltage profile improvement
- simultaneous optimal sizing
- multiple distributed generatores (DGs)
- load concentration factor (LCF)
- operational power factor
- primary distribution system
- loss sensitivity factor (LSF)
- improved analytic (IA)
- exhaustive load flow (ELF)