Load sensing bearing based road-tyre friction estimation considering combined tyre slip

Anil Kunnappillil Madhusudhanan*, Matteo Corno, Mustafa Ali Arat, Edward Holweg

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)


This work discusses a road-tyre friction estimator considering combined tyre slip. The friction estimator design is motivated by its importance in vehicle dynamics control as accurate friction estimation can improve performance and safety. The estimator uses tyre force measurements from Load Sensing Bearing (LSB) technology and does not rely on parameterized tyre model. The tyre force measurements benefit the estimator mainly because of the uncertainties and nonlinearities of the tyre force characteristics. The proposed estimator uses tyre slip and tyre force representations where the longitudinal and lateral tyre slips and forces are combined into a single tyre slip and tyre force values. This representation makes the method effective during pure longitudinal dynamics, pure lateral dynamics and for combined slip. In addition, individual tyre-road friction estimation is possible with the proposed estimator and a computationally inexpensive algorithm, suitable for real-time implementation, is used to estimate the friction. The estimator is studied in simulation during pure braking, pure cornering and for combined slip. Further, the estimator is simulated in closed loop with a yaw rate controller to study whether the estimator improves vehicle safety. Finally the estimator is validated using test data from several maneuvers performed on a test vehicle instrumented with LSB technology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)136-146
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • Combined tyre slip
  • Friction estimation
  • Normalized combined tyre force
  • Recursive Least Square
  • Yaw rate control


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