Local aberration control to improve efficiency in multiphoton holographic projections

Laura Maddalena, Hidde Keizers, Paolo Pozzi, Elizabeth Carroll*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
42 Downloads (Pure)


Optical aberrations affect the quality of light propagating through a turbid medium, where refractive index is spatially inhomogeneous. In multiphoton optical applications, such as two-photon excitation fluorescence imaging and optogenetics, aberrations non-linearly impair the efficiency of excitation. We demonstrate a sensorless adaptive optics technique to compensate aberrations in holograms projected into turbid media. We use a spatial light modulator to project custom three dimensional holographic patterns and to correct for local (anisoplanatic) distortions. The method is tested on both synthetic and biological samples to counteract aberrations arising respectively from misalignment of the optical system and from samples inhomogeneities. In both cases the anisoplanatic correction improves the intensity of the stimulation pattern at least two-fold.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)29128-29147
Number of pages20
JournalOptics Express
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - 2022


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