Lock-in Ultrafast Electron Microscopy Simultaneously Visualizes Carrier Recombination and Interface-Mediated Trapping

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Abstract

Visualizing charge carrier flow over interfaces or near surfaces meets great challenges concerning resolution and vastly different time scales of bulk and surface dynamics. Ultrafast or four-dimensional scanning electron microscopy (USEM) using a laser pump electron probe scheme circumvents the optical diffraction limit, but disentangling surface-mediated trapping and ultrafast carrier dynamics in a single measurement scheme has not yet been demonstrated. Here, we present lock-in USEM, which simultaneously visualizes fast bulk recombination and slow trapping. As a proof of concept, we show that the surface termination on GaAs, i.e., Ga or As, profoundly influences ultrafast movies. We demonstrate the differences can be attributed to trapping-induced surface voltages of approximately 100-200 mV, which is further supported by secondary electron particle tracing calculations. The simultaneous visualization of both competing processes opens new perspectives for studying carrier transport in layered, nanostructured, and two-dimensional semiconductors, where carrier trapping constitutes a major bottleneck for device efficiency.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8880-8886
Number of pages7
JournalThe Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Volume11
Issue number20
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

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