In seismology and ocean acoustics, the interface with the atmosphere is typically represented as a free surface. Similarly, these interfaces are considered as a rigid surface for infrasound propagation. This implies that seismic or acoustic waves are not transmitted into the atmosphere from subsurface sources, and vice versa. Nevertheless, infrasound generated by subsurface sources has been observed. In this work, seismo-acoustic modeling of infrasound propagation from underwater and underground sources will be presented. The fast field program (FFP) is used to model the seismo-acoustic coupling between the solid earth, the ocean, and the atmosphere under the variation of source and media parameters. The FFP model allows for a detailed analysis of the seismo-acoustic coupling mechanisms in frequency-wavenumber space. A thorough analysis of the coupling mechanisms reveals that evanescent wave coupling and leaky surface waves are the main energy contributors to long-range infrasound propagation. Moreover, it is found that source depth affects the relative amplitude of the tropospheric and stratospheric phases, which allows for source depth estimation in the future.
Averbuch, G., Assink, J. D., & Evers, L. G. (2020). Long-range atmospheric infrasound propagation from subsurface sources. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 147(2), 1264-1274. https://doi.org/10.1121/10.0000792