Loophole-free Bell test using electron spins in diamond: Second experiment and additional analysis

Bas Hensen, Norbert Kalb, Machiel Blok, Anaïs Dréau, Andreas Reiserer, Raymond Vermeulen, Raymond Schouten, M. Markham, D.J. Twitchen, Kenneth Goodenough, David Elkouss Coronas, Stephanie Wehner, Tim Taminiau, Ronald Hanson

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The recently reported violation of a Bell inequality using entangled electronic spins in diamonds (Hensen et al., Nature 526, 682–686) provided the first loophole-free evidence against local-realist theories of nature. Here we report on data from a second Bell experiment using the same experimental
setup with minor modifications. We find a violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality of 2.35 ± 0.18, in agreement with the first run, yielding an overall value of S = 2.38 ± 0.14. We calculate the resulting P-values of the second experiment and of the combined Bell tests. We provide an additional analysis of the distribution of settings choices recorded during the two tests, finding that the observed
distributions are consistent with uniform settings for both tests. Finally, we analytically study the effect of particular models of random number generator (RNG) imperfection on our hypothesis test. We find that the winning probability per trial in the CHSH game can be bounded knowing only the mean of the
RNG bias. This implies that our experimental result is robust for any model underlying the estimated average RNG bias, for random bits produced up to 690 ns too early by the random number generator.
Original languageEnglish
Article number30289
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalScientific Reports
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • Quantum information
  • Qubits
  • Single photons and quantum effects


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