Loose bolt localization and torque prediction in a bolted joint using lamb waves and explainable artificial intelligence

Muping Hu*, Nan Yue, Roger M. Groves

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Abstract

With the increasing application of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques in the field of structural health monitoring (SHM), there is a growing interest in explaining the decision-making of the black-box models in deep learning-based SHM methods. In this work, we take explainability a step further by using it to improve the performance of AI models. In this work, the results of explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) algorithms are used to reduce the input size of a one-dimensional convolutional neural network (1D-CNN), hence simplifying the CNN structure. To select the most accurate XAI algorithm for this purpose, we propose a new evaluation method, feature sensitivity (FS). Utilizing XAI and FS, a reduced dimension 1D-CNN regression model (FS-X1D-CNN) is proposed to locate and predict the torque of loose bolts in a 16-bolt connected aluminum plate under varying temperature conditions. The results were compared with 1D CNN with raw input vector (RI-1D-CNN) and deep autoencoders-1D-CNN (DAE-1D-CNN). It is shown that FS-X1D-CNN achieves the highest prediction accuracy with 5.95 mm in localization and 0.54 Nm in torque prediction, and converges 10 times faster than RI-1D-CNN and 15 times faster than DAE-1D-CNN, while only using a single lamb wave signal path.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages21
JournalStructural Health Monitoring
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2024

Keywords

  • explainable AI
  • Lamb waves
  • loose bolt localization
  • one-dimensional convolutional neural network
  • structural health monitoring
  • torque prediction

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