Low-cost, high-precision, single-frequency GPS–BDS RTK positioning

Robert Odolinski, Peter J.G. Teunissen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

43 Citations (Scopus)


The integration of the Chinese BDS with other systems, such as the American GPS, makes precise RTK positioning possible with low-cost receivers. We investigate the performance of low-cost ublox receivers, which cost a few hundred USDs, while making use of L1 GPS + B1 BDS data in Dunedin, New Zealand. Comparisons will be made to L1 + L2 GPS and survey-grade receivers which cost several thousand USDs. The least-squares variance component estimation procedure is used to determine the code and phase variances and covariances of the receivers and thus formulate a realistic stochastic model. Otherwise, the ambiguity resolution and hence positioning performance would deteriorate. For the same reasons, the existence of receiver-induced time correlation is also investigated. The low-cost RTK performance is then evaluated by formal and empirical ambiguity success rates and positioning precisions. It will be shown that the code and phase precision of the low-cost receivers can be significantly improved by using survey-grade antennas, since they have better signal reception and multipath suppression abilities in comparison with low-cost patch antennas. It will also be demonstrated that the low-cost receivers can achieve competitive ambiguity resolution and positioning performance to survey-grade dual-frequency GPS receivers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1315-1330
Number of pages16
JournalGPS Solutions (online)
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2017


  • Least-squares variance component estimation (LS-VCE)
  • Low-cost receiver
  • Multi-GNSS
  • Real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning
  • Time correlation

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