Low temperature district heating based on low temperature geothermal heat (30 oC)

S. Knepper, I.W.M. Pothof, L.C.M. Itard, C.A. Infante Ferreira

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review

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A comparative study for a representative case district in the Netherlands with around 2500 dwellings has been executed with the purpose of identifying the best solution for a Low Temperature District Heating (LTDH) with Low Temperature Geothermal Heat (LTGH) as the main heat source. The district is presently connected to the Dutch gas network. Its heat demand and building typologies are used as departing points. The comparison is based on 3 key performances indicators (KPI’s): CO2 emissions, levelized costs of energy (LCOE) and peak electricity use. The following LTDH designs have been considered: Central heat pump and collective peak supply at 70 ⁰C / 50 ⁰C; Central heat pump and decentral peak supply at 70 ⁰C / 50 ⁰C; Decentralized heat pumps using 30 ⁰C supply temperature. Individual air source heat pumps for space heating and electric boilers for domestic hot water purposes are taken as reference. The LTDH concept with decentralized heat pumps saves 19.5 %, 16.8 % and 36 % on the CO2 emission, LCOE, and electricity use in peak load hours compared to the reference concept.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 13th IEA Heat Pump Conference (HPC2020)
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Event13th IEA Heat Pump Conference - Jeju, South-Korea, Jeju, Korea, Republic of
Duration: 26 Apr 202129 Apr 2021
Conference number: 13th


Conference13th IEA Heat Pump Conference
Abbreviated titleIEA HPC
Country/TerritoryKorea, Republic of
Internet address


  • Heat pump
  • Low temperature district heating
  • Low temperature geothermal heat source


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