This thesis deals with the modelling and application of magnetic fields in roads. The backbone technology being inductive power transfer (IPT) for electric vehicles. The magnetics for energy transfer in vehicles, can be adapted for heating steel fibres in roads, referred to as self-healing and modelling this is a second aspect of this thesis. The first sections of this thesis is dedicated to an overview of modelling techniques for coil design of IPT systems using both analytical and semi-analytical tools. A detailed literature review of techniques is followed by a comparison highlighting the strengths and weakness of techniques in terms of ease of use, computational efficiency, application to material interfaces etc. Analytical modelling of single and multi-coil configurations of IPT systems is carried out subsequently. The theory of partial inductance is used to model these geometries, to assess the impact of system parameters such as coupling, power transferred and magnetic efficiency with shapes of couplers and misalignment. Next, the problem of misalignment is highlighted by considering a distributed IPT system. The analytical modelling and experimental analysis of misalignment - lateral and longitudinal is performed. Edge effect is observed and experimentally validated. The second part of this thesis is dedicated to a multi-objective optimization based on the results of the developed analytical model. The goal being the development of a prototype IPT system for powering light EVs. The double rectangular (DR) coupler is chosen as the geometry for power transfer. Several geometry parameters - turns, ferrites (number, dimensions), gap between ferrites etc. are considered as design variables. Efficiency, area related power density and weight are considered as the optimization targets. Pareto fronts are developed and a particle is chosen for the development of a prototype. An experimental set-up is built consisting of a 85 kHz inverter, compensated charge-pads, rectifier and resistive load. The inverter is based on SiC MOSFETS and SiC Schottky anti-parallel diodes, the rectifier made from the same diodes. Phase shift control of the inverter legs is used to control power flow. An experimental analysis to validate the magnetic models is also developed. The third part of this thesis deals with system level economic analysis of IPT technology. A case study of bus fleet is considered and a generic methodology is developed to determine driving range as a function of mass and frontal area of the EV. The economic analysis is performed also identifying the trade-offs between road coverage of IPT, efficiency and battery size. Finally, the thesis culminates with a vision toward a future highway. Such a highway is expected to undergo a functional upgrade to handle electrification of transportation. This evolves around the integration of IPT systems, with low maintenance inductive healing asphalt roadways and renewable energy generation. The modelling challenges to such an integration is studied both using simulations and experiments. A case study for sizing renewable energy in a highway (A12) in the Netherlands using IPT is detailed.
|Award date||4 May 2018|
|Publication status||Published - 2018|