Magnetic imaging based on nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond has emerged as a powerful tool for probing magnetic phenomena in fields ranging from biology to physics. A key strength of NV sensing is its local-probe nature, enabling high-resolution spatial images of magnetic stray fields emanating from a sample. However, this local character can also form a drawback for analyzing the global properties of a system, such as a phase transition temperature. Here, we address this challenge by using statistical analyses of magnetic-field maps to characterize the first-order temperature-driven metamagnetic phase transition from the antiferromagnetic to the ferromagnetic state in FeRh. After imaging the phase transition and identifying the regimes of nucleation, growth, and coalescence of ferromagnetic domains, we statistically characterize the spatial magnetic-field maps to extract the transition temperature and thermal hysteresis width. By analyzing the spatial correlations of the maps in relation to the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and external magnetic field, we detect a reorientation of domain walls across the phase transition. The employed statistical approach can be extended to the study of other magnetic phenomena with NV magnetometry or other sensing techniques.