Magnetic Stimulation for Programmed Shape Morphing: Review of Four-Dimensional Printing, Challenges and Opportunities

Vera G. Kortman*, Ellen De Vries, Jovana Jovanova, Aimée Sakes

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


In the field of Additive Manufacturing, four-dimensional (4D) printing has emerged as a promising technique to fabricate smart structures capable of undergoing shape morphing in response to specific stimuli. Magnetic stimulation offers a safe, remote, and rapid actuation mechanism for magnetically responsive structures. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the various strategies and manufacturing approaches employed in the development of magnetically stimulated shape morphing 4D-printed structures, based on an extensive literature search. The review explores the use of magnetic stimulation either individually or in combination with other stimuli. While most of the literature focuses on single-stimulus responsive structures, a few examples of multistimuli responsive structures are also presented. We investigate the influence of the orientation of magnetic particles in smart material composites, which can be either random or programmed during or after printing. Finally, the similarities and differences among the different strategies and their impact on the resulting shapemorphing behavior are analyzed. This systematic overview functions as a guide for readers in selecting a manufacturing approach to achieve a specific magnetically actuated shape-morphing effect.

Original languageEnglish
Journal3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 21 Dec 2023


  • 3D printing
  • 4D printing
  • additive manufacturing
  • magnetism
  • shape morphing
  • smart materials


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