The global quest for intermittent renewable energy sources (wind, solar), consumer goods (mobile phones, notebooks), and electrification of the transport sector (electric vehicles), requires a strong increase in the use of rechargeable energy storages devices, such as batteries. Hence, novel types of rechargeable batteries are to be found that are cost-effective, consist of environmentally friendly materials and non-critical materials, and deliver a high performance in terms of energy density and power, during a long cycle and service life, taking current legislation laws into account. Here we concentrate on various types of batteries and their materials, their typical sectors of application, and their forecast, including potential market share. It turns out that metals will still remain the predominant type of battery material, irrespective of the choice of battery system. From the required materials that are important for future rechargeable batteries, a number are critical in terms of scarcity, geopolitics, supply risk, competition with the food industry, carbon footprint, and/or ethical mining. With respect to the critical elements, particularly once those concern scarcity and supply risks, recycling is of utmost relevance, and needs to be regarded as an industrial sector of paramount importance.
|Title of host publication||Critical Materials|
|Subtitle of host publication||Underlying Causes and Sustainable Mitigation Strategies|
|Place of Publication||London, UK|
|ISBN (Print)||978-981-3271-04-3 |
|Publication status||Published - 2019|
|Name||World Scientific Series in Current Energy Issues|