In this paper, we survey mathematical programming methods for the management of pressure in water distribution systems through optimal placement and operation of control valves. The optimization framework addresses the minimization of average zone pressure under multiple demand scenarios, enforcing hydraulic equations as nonlinear constraints. Binary variables are used to model the placement of valves. The derived nonlinear optimization problem is a non-convex MINLP. We implement and evaluate a direct MINLP solver and two different reformulation methods for MINLPs that solve sequences of regular NLPs. Moreover, we investigate the solutions under different design and operation loading conditions.
- Mathematical optimization
- Mixed integer nonlinear programming
- Pressure management
- Valve placement
- Water distribution systems