Maximum overtopping forces on a dike-mounted wall with a shallow foreshore

Xuexue Chen*, Bas Hofland, Wim Uijttewaal

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


The impact force induced by waves overtopping a dike with a vertical wall on its crest, and with a shallow foreshore seaward of the dike, was studied. To this end, physical model tests were performed in a wave flume at a typical scale of 1:25. The goal of this study was to develop a method to estimate the maximum forces on the wall during a known storm peak. The time series of water depth at toe of the dike, flow thickness at seaward edge of the dike crest and impact forces were measured. An empirical Generalized Pareto distribution is verified as the best distribution for the extreme overtopping wave forces.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)89-102
Number of pages14
JournalCoastal Engineering
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2016


  • Dike
  • Generalized Pareto distribution
  • Impact force
  • Overtopping wave
  • Shallow foreshore


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