The impact force induced by waves overtopping a dike with a vertical wall on its crest, and with a shallow foreshore seaward of the dike, was studied. To this end, physical model tests were performed in a wave flume at a typical scale of 1:25. The goal of this study was to develop a method to estimate the maximum forces on the wall during a known storm peak. The time series of water depth at toe of the dike, flow thickness at seaward edge of the dike crest and impact forces were measured. An empirical Generalized Pareto distribution is verified as the best distribution for the extreme overtopping wave forces.
- Generalized Pareto distribution
- Impact force
- Overtopping wave
- Shallow foreshore