Measurement invariance of the driving inattention scale (ARDES) across 7 countries

Candida Castro*, P. Pablo Doncel, Rubén D. Ledesma, Silvana A. Montes, Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios, D. Daniela Barragan, Alessandra Bianchi, Natalia Kauer, Weina Qu, Jose Luis Padilla

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

12 Downloads (Pure)


The Attention-Related Driving Errors Scale (ARDES) is a self-report measure of individual differences in driving inattention. ARDES was originally developed in Spanish (Argentina), and later adapted to other countries and languages. Evidence supporting the reliability and validity of ARDES scores has been obtained in various different countries. However, no study has been conducted to specifically examine the measurement invariance of ARDES measures across countries, thus limiting their comparability. Can different language versions of ARDES provide comparable measures across countries with different traffic regulations and cultural norms? To what extent might cultural differences prevent researchers from making valid inferences based on ARDES measures? Using Alignment Analysis, the present study assessed the approximate invariance of ARDES measures in seven countries: Argentina (n = 603), Australia (n = 378), Brazil (n = 220), China (n = 308). Spain (n = 310), UK (n = 298), and USA (n = 278). The three-factor structure of ARDES scores (differentiating driving errors occurring at Navigation, Manoeuvring and Control levels) was used as the target theoretical model. A fixed alignment analysis was conducted to examine approximate measurement invariance. 12.3 % of the intercepts and 0.8 % of the item-factor loadings were identified as non-invariant, averaging 8.6 % of non-invariance. Despite substantial differences among the countries, sample recruitment or representativeness, study results support resorting to ARDES measures to make comparisons across the country samples. Thus, the range of cultures, laws and collision risk across these 7 countries provides a demanding assessment for a cultural-free inattention while-driving. The alignment analysis results suggest that ARDES measures reach near equivalence among the countries in the study. We hope this study will serve as a basis for future cross-cultural research on driving inattention using ARDES.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107412
JournalAccident Analysis and Prevention
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • Control errors
  • Distracted driver
  • Manoeuvring errors
  • Navigation errors
  • Planning errors
  • Proneness to distraction


Dive into the research topics of 'Measurement invariance of the driving inattention scale (ARDES) across 7 countries'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this