Ultrasound imaging velocimetry (UIV) has received considerable interest as a tool to measure in non-transparent flows. So far, studies have only reported statistics for steady flows or used a qualitative approach. In this study, we demonstrate that UIV has matured to a level where accurate turbulence statistics can be obtained. The technique is first validated in laminar and fully developed turbulent pipe flow (single-phase, with water as fluid) at a Reynolds number of 5300. The flow statistics agree with the literature data. Subsequently, we obtain similar statistics in turbulent two-phase flows at the same Reynolds number, by adding solid particles up to volume fraction of 3 %. In these cases, the medium is completely opaque, yet UIV provides useable data. The error in the measurements is estimated using an ad hoc approach at a volume load up to 10 %. For this case, the errors are approximately 1.9 and 0.3 % of the centerline velocity for the streamwise and radial velocity components, respectively. Additionally, it is demonstrated that it is possible to estimate the local concentration in stratified flows.
|Number of pages||12|
|Journal||Experiments in Fluids: experimental methods and their applications to fluid flow|
|Publication status||Published - 2016|